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Guide rail: a device, such as a groove or ridge made of metal or other material, capable of withstanding, securing, guiding or reducing friction
It should have the following properties:
(1) Guidance accuracy — the accuracy of trajectory guidance. The main factors affecting the guidance accuracy include: geometric accuracy and contact accuracy of the guide, the structure of the guide, the stiffness and thermal deformation of the guide and its supporting parts and the oil film thickness and stiffness between static (dynamic) pressure guides.
(2) Accuracy retention — mainly determined by the wear resistance of the guide rail. The wear resistance is related to the material of the guide, the friction property of the guide pair, the pressure on the guide and its distribution law.
(3) Stiffness — mainly includes the guide’s own stiffness and contact stiffness. It mainly depends on the shape、size、connect mode and bearing condition of guide rail.
(4) Low speed motion stationary — the friction-induced self-excited vibration of guide rail during low speed movement or micro-displacement is easy to occur, that is, crawling. Crawling reduces the positioning accuracy or increases the surface roughness of the work piece
The T Type- shaped guide rail & the hollow guide rail of the guide rail type
T type guide: its main dimensions and tolerances are shown in the table below. The common guide rail listed in the table and T82/B is the industry size, which is different from the old lift t-guide standard J6 5072.1-1996.
|Model and tolerance||b||h||k|
Hollow guide—it is made of steel plate through cold bending (or rolling) into a hollow t-shaped elevator to reuse the guide rail, which can reduce the weight and cost due to its empty characteristics. It satisfies the function of heavy guidance, but cannot bear the clamping force of safety pliers, so it is only used for the weight guide rail without the weight safety pliers and the elevator speed is not high.
The name of hollow guide is composed of class, group, type, feature, main parameter and deformation code.
□– deformation code: A means underside folding, underside straight edge omitted
△– Main parameter code: expressed as per unit weight of guide rail, kg/m
K– Type code: hollow section steel
T — Class group code: t-shaped elevator for reuse guide rail
For example, TK5A represents a 5kg/m t-shaped hollow guide with folded edges
Lecture on elevator parts and elevator knowledge
- Elevator Safety Gear & Reducer
Elevator safety gear is a mechanical device, which stop the car (or counter-weight) from moving. Safety pliers are required for any manned car suspended by a wire rope or chain. When there is a passageway or space under the bottom pit, a safety clamp is also required for the weight. The safety clamp is set on the beam under the cage frame and ACTS in pairs on the guide rail at the same time.
A speed limiter is a device that limits the speed of a car (counter-weight), and usually installed in the machine room or at the top of the well. The tension device is placed in the bottom pit.
Safety gear and speed limiters must be combined to work.
Elevator Speed limiter (Reducer)
Speed limiter can be divided into swing hammer type and centrifugal type according to its action principle.
Hem hammer speed limiter is to use the CAM on the rope wheel in contact with the roller at the end of the pendulum in the process of rotating, the frequency of the pendulum swings associated with rope wheel speed, when the vibration of the pendulum frequency exceeds a predetermined value, the pendulum of the ratchet into rope wheel stop stop claws, so that the speed limiter to stop running.
The speed limiter of centrifugal structure can be divided into vertical axis rotating type and horizontal axis rotating type. It is characterized by simple structure, high controllable ability and small space required for installation.
When designing or selecting, the following problems should be noted:
1). Speed limiter operating speed
2). Pretension force of speed limiter rope
3). Adhesion of the speed limiter rope to the rope wheel or the tension force of the speed limiter during operation
4). The response time of the limiter action should be as short as possible.
Instantaneous safety gear
It features a short braking distance and a strong impact on the car.
Divided into several categories:
Wedge type instantaneous safety pliers
Eccentric block type instantaneous safety clamp
Roller type instantaneous safety pliers
Progressive safety gear
It is characterized by elastic clamping of the clamping body, long stopping distance and stable car.
In order to ensure the elevator running safely, there are many safety parts on the elevator. The elevator run based on each safety component in normal condition, otherwise it will be stopped. The so-called safety circuit is to install a safety switch in each safety elevator part, all safety switches are connected in series, controlling a safety relay. Only when all the safety switches are on, the safety relay is closed, and the elevator can run electrically.
Safety component switch of common elevator safety circuit:
- Speed limit switch (including speed limiter cut rope switch) – when the elevator at a faster rate than the rated speed value must be at least equal to the rated speed (115%), its action can lead to safety clamp work safety device.
- Maintenance switch — divided into control cabinet maintenance switch, car maintenance switch and car top maintenance switch. The three repair switches lock each other to prevent wrong operation and ensure the safety of maintenance personnel.
- Bottom pit buffer switch — this device is located at the bottom of the well path and is set at the bottom limit position of the car and the counterweight stroke. In the buffer (an elastic buffer safety device used to absorb the car and against heavy kinetic energy). After the action, the elevator cannot operate normally until it returns to its normal elongation position.
- Upper and lower limit of interlock switch, when the car running beyond magnetic induction device, flat layer in capsules or have not contact with buffer before the weighing device, forced to cut off the main power supply and control power of the safety device of automatic reset. The device is located as close as possible to the end of the station when working without error in the dangerous position of movement. It shall operate in the cage or before heavy (if any) contact with the buffer and maintain its action status during compression of the buffer. For the forced drive elevator, the limit switch is used to cut off the power supply circuit of the motor and brake. The elevator cannot resume operation automatically after the limit switch action.
- Safety clamp switch — check whether the speed limiter is operating. When the speed limiter moves, then a mechanical safety device that keeps the car or the car in a static state and can clamp the guide rail.
- Safety window switch — means that the car safety window is equipped with a safety device for manual locking. If the lock fails, the device can stop the elevator. The elevator will not be able to resume operation until it is re-locked.
- Door and door interlock switch — door and door of the hall are locked after closing, and the control loop is connected at the same time. The safety device of mechanical & electrical interlock safety device can only operate the car. Its function is that when the elevator car stops at a certain floor station, the door of the other floor station is effectively locked, and if the elevator is opened, it cannot start or keep running normally.
Along with the development of the city, for some of the high-rise building, if the use of simple stair brightness caused a lot of trouble for people, and people will waste a lot of time, therefore, the emergence of the elevator for people to solve the problem of the stairs, the elevator is not only has the characteristics of simple operation, fast, and it is very convenient in use, the fittings of elevator running is mainly used to help the elevator components, the operation of the elevator depends on the use of the elevator parts, as a result, the quality of elevator parts for elevator has important influence and role, and therefore, when the elevator parts of choose and buy, should how to choose:
- There are many different specifications for the selection of elevator parts, so the selection should be made according to the load capacity and model of the elevator, so that it is more convenient to use
- When choosing the elevator parts, had better not choose the poor quality of the parts, poor quality of the product when use may cause a lot of trouble, and no good product service life long, and some of the products are special, therefore, when making purchase better pay attention to the place, so that can save time for replacement.
Elevator guide rail is the safety track of the elevator running up and down in the well road; and is also one of the elevator spare parts. It can be known that the guide rail is be installed on the hoistway wall; and be fixed and connected between guide rail bracket and rail support on the hoistway wall. The common guide rail for elevators is ‘T’ shaped guide rail. For this kind of elevator parts, it has the characteristics of high reliability, high safety and low security. The guide rail plane must be smooth, with no obvious uneven surface. Due to the guide rail is shuttle track for guide shoe and safety gear of car, so the clearance must be kept during installation. The rigidity of guide rail cannot be ignored, because it will be born import duty for stop running when elevator happens the speed of the accident.
OTIS GEN2 elevator traction refers to the scrap basic standard of steel belt.
1. The design life of the steel belt is 20 years, which is 2-3 times of the traditional steel wire rope. It is recommended to conduct a comprehensive appearance inspection of the steel belt at least once a year during the design life cycle of the steel belt.
2. If there is no abrasion or damage to the steel core in the cladding layer and the steel belt real-time monitoring alarm device without abnormal alarm, then the steel belt will be recommended to be scrapped after 20 years of use.
3.Such as found in the routine maintenance of steel belt real-time monitoring alarm device has the abnormal alarm but did not stop running , need to check the steel belt monitor alarm device whether it is abnormal. If the belt monitor alarm device itself without exception, we suggest replacing the steel belt immediately.
4. If the steel belt monitor device alarming in real time and the elevator stop running. We should scrap and replace the steel belt immediately if the elevator does not re-serve in any way.
5. One of the following situations should be forced to scrap and replaced.
In order to be safe, the hoisting steel rope of the elevator is used with special or no. 1 steel wire, and its steel wire diameter is limited to between 0.3 and 1.3mm. The hoisting rope of the elevator is seru (X type) and warrington (W type). At present, the domestic elevator generally uses the silu-style 8 or 6 steel rope hauling steel rope, among which 8X(19) has more applications.
1. Example of steel rope mark identification.
1000kg of passenger elevator to the rated load, for example, schindler elevator traction rope with 8 X (19) – 16-140 right hand in, eight for the line number of shares, X is west lu type, (19) for each strand of wire number, 16 for schindler elevator traction rope nominal diameter (mm), and 140 for schindler elevator traction rope tensile strength (KGF/was), the right to pay for steel wire strand and strand in line right direction twist system. The domestic schindler elevator traction steel rope is right handed.
2. Steel rope core
Schindler elevator traction steel rope was used for the oiled fiber rope, rope support and fixed rope stock position so as to improve the contact between the steel rope, slow down the impact load, fuel storage pool role for schindler elevator traction steel rope of lubrication oil source for a long time, make good lubrication performance of the steel wire.
3. The structure and characteristics of the siu-type (X) schindler elevator traction steel rope.
Schindler elevator traction rope in strands of the cross section of a share to 1 + 9 + 9, namely core plus the first layer and the second layer, a total of 19 roots of steel wire: center wire 1 root, φ1.2 mm, inner layer steel wire 9 root, φ0.6 mm, outer wire 9 root φ1.05 mm. The outer diameter is larger than the inner diameter, so it is also called the outer rough schinda elevator to drag the steel rope. It is characterized by the same number of steel lines in the inner and outer layers of each share, but the diameter is different, the outer layer is embedded in the inner cavity of the inner layer, the twisting distance of the multi-layer steel wire is equal, the structure is tight and strong, and it is not easy to open the volume. The outer thick steel wire increases the wear resistance; the inner layer fine steel wire enhances softness, which is advantageous to the sliding of the bending moment, thus improving the flexibility and service life of the elevator traction steel rope. Between the two layers, the steel rope is in contact with the steel rope, and the fatigue resistance of the steel rope is good. The resistance of the steel wire is good, the contact area is increased and the contact stress is reduced.
- Three core components , the host, door machine, control drive system (that is, the panel in the control cabinet and converter) steel wire rope, long service life and can reduce maintenance costs, speed limiter, buffers, safety gear, the three is the most key components in the elevator safety, more than four pieces can consider to import
- Four Spaces: part of the machine room, well road and pit, car part, floor part.
Eight systems: traction system, guide system, cage, door system, weight balance system, electric drive system, electrical control system, safety protection system.
- Eight application technologies:
Every elevator part is very important. Any failure of an elevator part will cause an elevator accident. Therefore, it is very important to ensure the safety of the elevator.
(1) The defects of the motor will affect the safe operation of the whole drive system, and it is easy to have an unsafe impact on passengers.
(2) Severe wear or peeling of the gear (worm gear pair) will cause the elevator to run out of control due to the failure of the transmission, which may cause damage to the personnel.
(3) The brake, brake springs, brake arm, failure will cause brake failure, cause the car run out of control, thus, header, Dun bottom accident caused casualties and severe damage to equipment.
(4) The severe wear and hardness difference between the grooves and the grooves of the traction wheel will reduce the traction of the elevator, which can cause the elevator to run out of control and cause damage to passengers.
(5) The failure of the anti-rope wheel, the rewinding wheel and the guide wheel can easily cause the elevator to run out of control and cause damage to the passengers.
(6) The defects of the steel wire rope and the rope head are easy to cause the steel wire rope to break or slip, the cage fall, and cause the damage of equipment and buildings, and the serious accident of casualties.Continue reading